Incoterms 2020

  1. EXW (Ex Works)
    The seller makes the goods available at their premises, or at another named place. This term places the maximum obligation on the buyer and minimum obligations on the seller. The Ex Works term is often used when making an initial quotation for the sale of goods without any costs included.
  2. FOB (Free On Board)
    Under FOB terms the seller bears all costs and risks up to the point where the goods are loaded on board the vessel. The seller’s responsibility does not end at that point unless the goods are “appropriated to the contract” that is, they are “clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods.”
  3. CFR (Cost & Freight) 
    The seller pays for the carriage of the goods up to the named port of destination. Risk transfers to buyer when the goods have been loaded on board the ship in the country of Export. The Shipper is responsible for origin costs including export clearance and freight costs for carriage to named port. The shipper is not responsible for delivery to the final destination from the port (generally the buyer’s facilities), or for buying insurance. If the buyer does require the seller to obtain insurance, the Incoterm CIF should be considered.
  4. CIF (Cost, Insurance & Freight)
    This term is broadly similar to the above CFR term, with the exception that the seller is required to obtain insurance for the goods while in transit to the named port of destination. CIF requires the seller to insure the goods for 110% of their value under at least the minimum cover of the Institute Cargo Clauses of the Institute of London Underwriters (which would be Institute Cargo Clauses), or any similar set of clauses.
  5. DAP (Delivered At Place)
    DAP means that the seller will deliver the goods at the moment that the goods are arrived at the named place of destination. In other words, the actual delivery takes place before the moment of unloading. Under DAP terms, the risk passes from seller to buyer from the point of destination mentioned in the contract of delivery.
  6. DDP (Delivered Duty Paid)
    Seller is responsible for delivering the goods to the named place in the country of the buyer, and pays all costs in bringing the goods to the destination including import duties and taxes. The seller is not responsible for unloading.

Other conditions are:

FCA (Free Carrier)
The seller delivers the goods, cleared for export, at a named place (possibly including the seller’s own premises). The goods can be delivered to a carrier nominated by the buyer, or to another party nominated by the buyer.

FAS (Free Alongside Ship)
The seller delivers when the goods are placed alongside the buyer’s vessel at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that moment. The FAS term requires the seller to clear the goods for export, which is a reversal from previous Incoterms versions that required the buyer to arrange for export clearance. However, if the parties wish the buyer to clear the goods for export, this should be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale. This term should be used only for non-containerized seafreight and inland waterway transport.


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Our experienced customs specialists will be happy to advise you on the customs regulations around delivery terms. Also known as Incoterms.